- Al-Ahsa lies to the east of the Kingdom; to the north lie the provinces of Baqaiq, Niayriah, and the Ulya Village; to the east lie the Arab Gulf, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, to the south lie Saltante of Uman, Yemen and Najran and to the west lie Riyadh and Najran.
- Al-Ahsa is considered one of the historical residential areas across ages. The archeological discoveries which are older than five thousand years B C are the best witness.
- Al-Ahsa is characterized by being a historical center for exchanging commercial goods since it is located on the ancient caravan commercial route known as the Spice or Incense Route; the trade then move southwards to Asia and Africa and northwards to Mesopotamia and the Levant
- The total area of Al-Ahsa is 379000 square kilometer representing 20% of the Kingdom area
- Al-Ahsa population is about 896746 people in accordance with the census of 1425 Hijri; it then increased to 1.1 million in 1431 census Hijri corresponding to 4% of the total kingdom population which is 27 million. Al-Ahsa population in 1433 Hijri was estimated to be 1.3 million distributed on 10 cities and 60 villages.
- 96.3% of the Al-Ahsa population live inside Al-Ahsa oasis.
The historical Importance
- Al-Ahsa is considered one of the most ancient cities where a stable civilization was founded; its civilization dates back to 5000 years BC.
- The Canaanites were the first who settled this province 3000 years BC. They came from the middle of the Arabian Peninsula attracted by the fresh springs; from their dynasty the giant Phoenicians descended
- In the first 1000 years BC, the Chaldeans immigrants migrated to the province from Babel. They founded a city close to Al-oqair (Al-ujair) called Al-jarha. It was an important commercial center. Many Arab tribes migrated to the area where the two tribes of Qatha and Al-Azad settled in the beginning of the Christian calendar
- Abdul-Qays tribe also settled there; it was the most famous among the Arab tribes which settled there in the pre-Islamic era; Suq Hajar and Jawatha markets were the most well-known then. When Islam emerged, they were the first to believe in it: Muhammad, the Messenger of God appointed Ala Bin Hadhrami a governor of the region.
- Prophet Muhammad took proper care of the Gulf residents and of the Bahrainis, Al-Ahsa especially since he realized the importance of the area, its strategic location to the east of the Arabian Peninsula; he established a solid economic base that played an important role in supporting the Islamic State and the spread of Islam to the neighboring countries.
- Ibn Abbas (May Allah bless him) reported that the first Friday prayer was held in Prophet Muhammad Mosque and the second in Abdul Qays Mosque in Jawatha.
- In 317 Hijri, 929 AD, The Garamith built Al-Ahsa city; then the Ayoniuin, managed to defeat the Garamuth state with the aid of the Abbasid; Bani Amir then ruled in 615 Hijri and their leader was captured by Jurwan family who are followed by Al-Jabir in the middle of the ninth Century Hijri; Al-Gamas family then ruled Al-Ahsa followed by the Turks in 927 Hijri; Al-Ahsa is ruled by the Ottomans from 1080 Hijri to 1669 AD when Bani Khalid leaders forced the Ottomans to retreat.
- At the beginning of the 13th C Hijri, Al-Ahsa was ruled by the Saudis until 1233 Hijri, 1818 AC. When the Ottoman Empire launched a military expedition by her governor in Egypt, it managed to occupy Al-Ahsa. The district returned to the Saudi rule after a struggle with the Ottoman state when the late King Abdul Aziz marched with his army covered by the date palm leaves to Hofuf. At the night 28/5/1331 Hijri, he managed to liberate the city.
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